47 Time limit is even more challenging in online or blended education. When schools closed due to the pandemic, science took a particularly hard hit, as schools focused on the basics (Viadero D., et al., 2021). Only a limited amount of time was allocated to science subjects online (as discussed in Chapter 3.3: for example, chemistry teachers in Cyprus reported they were teaching just an hour per week online) and it was quite hard for science teachers to effectively deliver their lessons within the time available, having to cover the overburdened curriculum and combine theory with practice at the same time. Much more time, effort and planning was/ is required to prepare an online or blended lesson, which for teachers is considered more tiring than a class lesson (Nisiforou et al., 2021 & & Katić et al., 2021). The online education also made a more student-centred instruction even harder. Teachers can hardly implement more student-centred activities online, such as applying knowledge in practice tasks, organising peer review or using collaborative learning. Remote learning made hands-on scientific inquiry even more difficult to do (Viadero et al., 2021). In the case of Cyprus, teachers rarely tried to include new practices and tools suitable for distance learning settings, such as videos, quizzes, online discussion forums, breakout rooms, games, virtual laboratories, simulations (Sofianidis et al., 2021). Research made in Slovenia by the National Education Institute of Slovenia in 2020 shows that teachers did use different methods, though there are two methods standing out: platforms for live conferences and written instructions (Zavod Republike Slovenije za Šolstvo, 2020). With regard to Italy, before the Covid-19 tsunami, Italian schools had not yet introduced digital technology in a widespread and conscious manner as a tool for enhancing the learning and citizenship skills of their students. Teachers, in fact, have been using different digital tools and materials, often without having the necessary skills (Paolo Maria Ferri, 2020). This delicate historical period, allows Italian teachers to approach diversified methodologies and appreciate the support that the use of digital technology can give to teaching. Online learning has also clear benefits: • Easier to implement multimodal approaches: The combination of audio, video, text, and other means to convey meaning has the potential to provide students greater access to curricula and learning opportunities and additional ways to demonstrate their understanding (Hashey & Stahl, 2014) • Easier to implement differentiation (at individual level or sub-group level): Teachers can customize the focus of instruction to best meet students’ unique learning needs (Hashey & Stahl, 2014) • Individual pace of learning: students can work at their own pace and work at a time of day that suits the student.