37 computer, no device to connect to on-line classes, time management (especially in a families with 2 or more children, where also parents had to work remotely). These are external reasons, but there were also a lot of problems with pupils' motivation, when they had all other conditions fulfilled. 2.7.6 ONLINE TEACHING AND LEARNING Online (also remote, distance) learning is present for a long period of time. It started even before the digital era with some preceding examples of distance learning as early as in the 1950s (Lockee, 2021). With the internet also online education was born and as research shows it grew higher every year. Online learning and teaching has been increasing in the last two decades. Researches were covering several different topics, such as – learner, course and instructor and organisation (Martin et al., 2020). A huge amount of online teaching and learning in the past was reserved for higher education as an alternative pathway for adults, wanting to raise their existing education to another level (Lockee, 2021). That has changed severely in the year 2020, when the COVID-19 pandemic was announced across the world, and people had to stay at home in order to prevent further spread of the virus. With the advantage of digital era’s assessment, there was no serious need for the schools to shut down during the lock-down. Schools have quickly adapted to the stay-at-home situation and started organising lessons through online resources. Online education was therefore moved from being reserved for higher education to all educational levels, including early primary schools with pupils as young as 6 years old. With the best solution possible given the situation, also a large amount of new obstacles and challenges came across. Teachers were exposed to new types of lessons, a lot of them had to gain new ICT skills they never thought they would need, pupils were taken away from their peers and had to accept new ways of learning, a lot of time with the help of their parents. At the beginning there was no universal way for schools to face this challenge. Teachers were planning their lessons individually and there were several different techniques and strategies in a framework of a specific school event. With the length of the pandemic also school by school found the way to unify their approach to slowly avoid the confusion and lack of consistency first weeks of wide online teaching and learning caused. Different companies provided different solutions and schools were more than willing to examine and implement the creative ideas that were provided. A lot of schools were using online meeting systems, such as ZOOM and Microsoft Teams and were planning their lessons in MOOC environments (such as MOODLE). As reported in a questionnaire made by OTA, teachers were very creative in searching for different tools for their online lessons (online quizzes platforms, whiteboards, video and audio software …).